Scientists who study what goes on in our atmosphere are called meteorologists. They can tell us what the weather will be like in the next few days. They gather information from all sorts of instruments.
Ten thousand weather stations on all continents observe the weather worldwide. They use many kinds of instruments to measure the condition of the atmosphere. The thermometer, for example, measures the air temperature, a barometer measures the weight of the air and a hygrometer shows how much moisture is in the atmosphere.
Weather balloons are sent into higher regions of the atmosphere and measure changes in temperature, winds and other elements. A radio transmits data back to earth.
Weather station in Victoria, Australia
Preparing for the launch of a weather balloon
Image: Jim Barton CC BY-SA 2.0